(The Conversation) — From our early morning routines to our cultural and spiritual traditions, the COVID-19 pandemic has intensely highlighted our need for rituals. Rituals, comprehended as “a strategic way of performing in social conditions,” are performative things to do that comply with a approved sequence of actions.
Most scholarship understands rituals to be an inversion of standard conduct that set an motion apart from mundane activities.
Not all rituals are religious, but spiritual scientific tests scholar Catherine M. Bell has defined how practically any ceremony, common clothes and a variety of traditions can be viewed as ritual-like pursuits. From time to time these things to do replicate a memory of an earlier tradition, these as Thanksgiving dinner. Other occasions, materials objects, these kinds of as a flag or scriptures, evoke a ritualistic context. Rituals give connections with the past, belonging to a local community and a perception of continuity.
When every little thing else is modifying, engaging with activities that “we have always done” can supply convenience. Rituals have grow to be typical in news media as equally a casualty and a thing that has benefited from COVID-19. Several folks pass up obtain to their common rituals thanks to the pandemic’s disruption of normal routines and traditions.
There is also proof that some have produced new rituals, specifically in the context of their dwelling. A person attention-grabbing pattern that has surfaced through this pandemic is pandemic baking. People have turned to cooking and baking as a signifies of coping all through these hoping moments.
Rituals of the standard
While ancient Jewish texts regularly refer to health problems, seldom do the authors mention professional medical professionals. These texts mirror an ancient planet in which there were other ways to offer with diseases. Cooking, even for the unwell, can be understood as a ritual-like exercise. By discovering food stuff rituals in the context of disease, we will show how conventional and often changeless rituals present consolation in changing social predicaments.
Couple of students have viewed as the routines of standard folks as a ritual, mainly because they so generally drop outdoors of what scholarship has deemed as ritual. Sociologist Susan Starr Sered and anthropologist Barbara Myerhoff have discussed mundane residence rituals as reflections of “domestic faith.”
Sered, who researched aged immigrant females in Israel, argues that, within just the context of a “male-oriented religion,” women established their individual rituals in buy to construct “a meaningful spiritual existence.” These include things like nurturing and feeding their beloved kinds and getting accountability for the poor and needy. Sered has termed these things to do as “sacralizing,” due to the fact it permits people to relate their life “meaningfully to God.”
Sered demonstrates how foods preparing can be a sacred ritual simply because it tends to make the intangible elements of society and religion tangible. These a link is notably powerful in the kashrut, the Jewish technique of food legislation, which elevates meal preparing from currently being a day-to-day mundane exercise “to a religious ritual par excellence.”
Ancient authors ended up knowledgeable of the relevance of foods for typical very well-becoming, and the notion that meals strengthens the particular person is outlined in several Biblical texts.
For case in point, King David’s guys feed an Egyptian who has not eaten for three times and the text claims that “his spirit revived.” The author does not only spotlight bodily effectively-getting in this verse, but the return of his spirit (ruah) which would make him residing indicates that food items is not only a suggests to satisfy a basic human need. It is feasible that meals was understood in a lot more intricate approaches.
Feeding the ill as ritual
In some contexts, food stuff could signify a residence ritual as a reaction to illness. An illustration of this occurs in the Testomony of Job, an early Jewish crafting that expands the Biblical Book of Task and envisions Job’s remaining times. In this narrative, God presents Satan permission to inflict Job’s human body with plagues.
The writer narrates how Job’s spouse Sitis cared for him in the course of his health issues by delivering him bread to consume. Pushed to slavery, Sitis turns to Satan, considering he was a male, and begs for bread. Considering that they ended up inadequate, Sitis has absolutely nothing but her hair to provide as payment and she sells her hair to Satan to purchase some bread for Position.
The textual content indicates that this episode is not merely about an consciousness of the great importance of taking in, for the reason that following bringing the bread to Work, the text involves a lamentation. Sitis laments her misfortunes that have resulted from Job’s ailment: the poverty, the reduction of material possessions and her hair. Pursuing Sitis’ lament, Career reveals the person as Satan who declares himself defeated and lastly leaves Task in peace. Job then recovers from his disease.
A variety of details of the Testomony of Career narrative counsel connections with rituals. Most notably, unique laments that explain the current struggling and ask for for assist might have been carried out ritualistically. Biblical scholar Carol Meyers has argued that in ancient Jewish texts, gals are recognised for carrying out laments.
As some laments of the Hebrew Bible especially converse about ailment, they may perhaps have been composed to address the health issues in hopes that the deity would intervene and mend the unwell. This sort of words and phrases are preserved, for occasion, in Psalm 102:3-4:
“For my days move away like smoke, and my bones melt away like a furnace. My heart is stricken and withered like grass I am too wasted to consume my bread.”
Bread seems in several accounts that refer to suffering. A portion of historical (and also modern) burial rituals offers the so-referred to as mourner’s bread to the mourners. In 2 Samuel 3, King David who is mourning performs a lamentation and men and women present him bread.
In a comparable vein, in 2 Samuel 13, the narrative of Tamar’s rape by her brother Amnon, suggests an being familiar with of foodstuff outside of mere sustenance. Tamar geared up cakes for Amnon, who pretended to be ill.
Biblical scholar Tikva Frymer Kensky describes that the cakes Tamar delivers Amnon are known as “biryah,” a term which implies both a heart-formed cake or food items that “enheartens” the sick person. Hence, the cakes that Tamar prepares in 2 Samuel 13 have been not meant to be available to the sick only to have him take in “something” — there was a thing significant in the method of making ready this individual food items and its visual appearance.
Connection with symbolic therapeutic electrical power of meals is specifically emphasized in 2 Kings 20:7, in which the prophet Isaiah advises the unwell King Hezekiah to location a fig cake on his boil. Meals is proposed to recover even devoid of remaining eaten.
In this textual content, the cakes, as a substance, are found as acquiring some kind of therapeutic electric power for the reason that, soon after next the prophet’s information, King Hezekiah recovers.
Comfort and ease in weird instances
Comparable to ancient texts that depict rituals associated to foods, in our current context, foods is both equally consolation and symbol. For occasion, bread has countless symbolic connotations. Food stuff and rituals connected to it provide connections with many others, even when it has develop into exceedingly hard to connect with folks.
(Hanna Tervanotko is an assistant professor of religious scientific tests and Katharine Fitzgerald is a Ph.D. college student in religious scientific studies, at McMaster University. This posting is republished from The Conversation underneath a Creative Commons license. The views expressed in this commentary does not always mirror these of Religion Information Assistance.)